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Oracle Exadata Database Machine X3 Administration

Question No: 1

To guarantee proper cooling, you plan to place perforated floor tiles near your Database Machine.

Where, in relation to the cabinet, should they be placed?

  1. On the left side, because the air flow is from left to right

  2. At the back, because the air flow is from back to front

  3. On the right side, because the air flow is from right to left.

  4. At the front, because the air flow is from front to back

  5. Underneath the cabinet, because the air flow is from bottom to top

Answer: D

Explanation: Airflow must be front-to-back.

Reference: Oracle White Paper, ORACLE Exadata Database Machine X3-8

Question No: 2

You plan to migrate your Oracle Version 11.1.0.2 database to your Exadata Database Machine.

The database supports an online transaction processing (OLTP) workload and is currently hosted on a Little Endian platform

Which two are the supported and appropriate migration methods to minimize downtime?

  1. Upgrade source database to 11.2.0 and migrate using a physical standby database.

  2. Migrate using Data Pump.

  3. Migrate using GoldenGate.

  4. Migrate using cross platform Transportable Database.

  5. Migrate using ASM online migration.

Answer: A,B

Reference: Migrating the Oracle E-Business Suite Database to Oracle Exadata Database Machine Using Transportable Tablespaces

Reference: Migrating Oracle E-Business Suite to Oracle Exadata Database Machine Using Oracle Data Pump

Question No: 3

You recently upgraded your Exadata image to the latest release; previously you were using 11.2.0.3.

At the same time, you decide to address some performance problems as follows:

You noticed increased latency for the database log writer, especially during the quarterly battery learn cycle on the cells.

You have complaints of erratic performance from certain write-intensive applications. Which two actions could improve performance in these areas?

  1. Enable write-back flashcache by setting lunWriteCacheMode to Write Back Mode.

  2. Use ALTER TABLE in the database to set CELL_FLASH_CACHE = KEEP for the tables belonging to the affected application.

  3. Configure Smart Flash Log on the cells to use some of these of the space on the cell flash devices.

  4. Configure the table belonging to the affected application using CELLCLI, to the set CELL_FLASH_CACHE = KEEP.

  5. Configure Smart Flash Log on the database server to use server flash memory.

Answer: B,C

Explanation: B: The following command could be used to pin the table CUSTOMERS in Exadata

Smart Flash Cache

ALTER TABLE customers STORAGE (CELL_FLASH_CACHE KEEP)

C: Creating Flash Disks Out Of The Flash Cache

When an Exadata cell is installed, by default, all the flash is assigned to be used as flash cache and

user data is automatically cached using the default caching behavior. Optionally, a portion of the

cache can be reserved and used as logical flash disks. These flash disks are treated like

any

Exadata cell disk in the Exadata cell except they actually reside and are stored as non- volatile

disks in the cache.

Note:

* Pinning Objects In The Flash Cache

Preferential treatment over which database objects are cached is also provided with the Exadata

Smart Flash Cache. For example, objects can be pinned in the cache and always be cached, or an

object can be identified as one which should never be cached. This control is provided by the

new storage clause attribute, CELL_FLASH_CACHE, which can be assigned to a database table, index, partition and LOB column

* There are two techniques provided to manually use and manage the cache. The first enables the

pinning of objects in the flash cache. The second supports the creation of logical disks out of the

flash for the permanent placement of objects on flash disks.

Question No: 4

You are about to run the oplan utility to patch the servers on your test Database Machine before patching the production environment.

The following task might be performed:

  1. Test the failback procedure

  2. Run the exachk utility

  3. Read the README file.

  4. Automate the patch application process as appropriate.

  5. Verify that the patch provides the functionality it is meant to.

  6. Apply the patch.

  7. Evaluate the system performance.

In which order should the tasks be performed to patch in the recommended fashion?

  1. C, B, D, F, B, E, A

  2. C, D, F, B, E, G, A, B

  3. C, B, D, F, E, G, A

  4. C, B, D, F, E, A, G

  5. C, B, D, F, B, E, G, A

Answer: E

Question No: 5

Which two are true about Smart Scan?

  1. a query rewrite may occur to a container table stored in Exadata but will never benefit From Smart scan.

  2. Column projection does not contribute to the performance benefit of Smart Scan

  3. It is possible to offload single row functions to the storage servers.

  4. Some joins can be offloaded to the storage servers.

  5. A query rewrite may occur to a container table stored Exadata, and it will always benefit from Smart Scan.

  6. All joins can be offloaded to the storage servers.

Answer: C,D

Explanation: C: With Exadata storage, database operations are handled much more efficiently. Queries that perform table scans can be processed within Exadata storage with only the required subset of data returned to the database server. Row filtering, column filtering and some join processing (among other functions) are performed within the Exadata storage cells. When this takes place only the relevant and required data is returned to the database server.

D (not F):

  • Exadata performs joins between large tables and small lookup tables, a very common scenario for data warehouses with star schemas. Joining large tables and small lookup tables is implemented using Bloom Filters, which are a very efficient probabilistic method to determine whether a row is a member of the desired result set.

  • If storage indexes are so great, why doesn’t Oracle Exadata use them all the time? The short answer is that they are created and used only when they will be beneficial.

  • To use storage indexes, Oracle Exadata queries must use smart scans, so not all types of applications can benefit from storage indexes. Applications with queries that include predicates and perform a lot of full table scans or fast full scans of indexes-typically those used in data warehousing environments-will benefit greatly from storage indexes. Online transaction processing (OLTP) applications, on the other hand, typically access a small number of rows through standard indexes and do not perform full table scans, so they may not benefit from storage indexes.

    Note:

  • Storage indexes reside in the memory of the storage servers-also called storage cells-and significantly reduce unnecessary I/O by excluding irrelevant database blocks in the storage cells.

  • To use storage indexes, Oracle Exadata queries must use smart scans, so not all types of applications can benefit from storage indexes.

Incorrect:

Not B: Exadata provides column filtering, also called column projection, for table scans. Only the columns requested are returned to the database server rather than all columns in a table. For example, when the following SQL is issued, only the employee_name and employee_number columns are returned from Exadata to the database kernel.

SELECT employee_name, employee_number FROM employee_table.

For tables with many columns, or columns containing LOBs (Large Objects), the I/O bandwidth saved can be very large. Using both predicate and column filtering dramatically improves performance and reduces I/O bandwidth consumption. In addition, column filtering also applies to indexes, allowing for even faster query performance.

Reference: Oracle Communications Data Model Implementation and Operations Guide, Exadata Smart Scan Processing and Storage Index

Question No: 6

You are about to replace one memory DIMM in an Exadata storage server and need to power off the affected cell.

Which four commands must you execute to safely power off the storage server in your standard deployed quarter rack Database Machine assuming that redundancy is not compromised?

  1. ‘crsctl stop cluster -all’ on one of the database servers

  2. CellCLIgt; LIST GRIDDISK ATTRIBUTE name WHERE asmdeactivationoutcome != ‘Yes’

  3. CellCLIgt; ALTER GRIDDISK ALL INACTIVE

  4. CellCLIgt; LIST GRIDDISK WHERE STATUS != ‘inactive’

  5. ‘shutdown -h now’ on the affected cell

Answer: B,C,D,E Explanation:

B: Step 1:

Run the following command to check if there are other offline disks

CellCLIgt; LIST GRIDDISK ATTRIBUTES name WHERE asmdeactivationoutcome != #39;Yes#39;

If any grid disks are returned, then it is not safe to take the storage server offline because proper Oracle ASM disk group redundancy will not be intact.

C: Step 2:

Inactivate all the grid disks when Oracle Exadata Storage Server is safe to take offline using the following command:

CellCLIgt; ALTER GRIDDISK ALL INACTIVE

Taking the storage server offline when one or more grid disks are in this state will cause Oracle ASM to dismount the affected disk group, causing the databases to shut down abruptly.

D: Step 3:

– Verify all grid disks are INACTIVE to allow safe storage server shut down by running the following command:CellCLIgt; LIST GRIDDISK ATTRIBUTES name, asmmodestatusCellCLIgt; LIST GRIDDISKIf all grid disks are INACTIVE, then the storage server can be shutdown without affecting database availability

E: Step 4:

To stop a server, use the shutdown command. To stop immediately and keep it down, i.e. not reboot, execute:

#

shutdown -h -y now

Question No: 7

Which two statements are true about the IPTables firewall configuration on a Database Machine- Machine after the default Initial deployment?

  1. IPTables is configured with Oracle supplied rules on the cells.

  2. IPTables is configured with Oracle supplied rules on the database servers.

  3. IPTables is installed and available but not configured on any servers.

  4. IPTables is installed and available but not configured on the database servers.

  5. IPTables is installed and available but not configured on the cells.

Answer: A,D

Question No: 8

Which three are true about Smart Flash log?

  1. I/O Resource Manager database plans can be used to enable or disable Smart Flash Log for different databases.

  2. LGWR will not wait for writes to Smart Flash log if the write to a disk based log file completes first.

  3. Smart Flash Log is enabled by default, using 1024 MB of Rash storage on each storage server.

  4. You can remove Smart Flash Log from a single storage server with the drop flashing command.

  5. I/O Manager category plans can be used to enable or disable Smart Flash Log For different I/O categories.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation: A: the Exadata I/O Resource Manager (IORM) has been enhanced to enable or disable Smart Flash Logging for the different databases running on the Database Machine.

B: Smart Flash Logging works as follows. When receiving a redo log write request, Exadata will do

parallel writes to the on-disk redo logs as well as a small amount of space reserved in the flash

hardware. When either of these writes has successfully completed the database will be immediately notified of completion. If the disk drives hosting the logs experience slow response

times, then the Exadata Smart Flash Cache will provide a faster log write response time. Conversely, if the Exadata Smart Flash Cache is temporarily experiencing slow response times

(e.g., due to wear leveling algorithms), then the disk drive will provide a faster response time.

This algorithm will significantly smooth out redo write response times and provide overall better

database performance.

D: Category plans are configured and enabled using the CellCLI utility on the cell. Only one category plan can be enabled at a time

Incorrect:

Not C: By default, 512 MB of the Exadata flash is allocated to Smart Flash Logging

Question No: 9

Which two are Oracle recommendations for media based backups performed for a database running on a Database Machine?

  1. Allocate equivalent number of channels and instances per tape drive.

  2. Perform periodic level 0 backups and daily cumulative level-1 backups.

  3. Use the InfiniBand network between the database server and media server.

  4. Configure Recovery Manager (RMAN) channels to connect to the least loaded instances.

  5. Use InfiniBand network between the media server and the storage servers.

Answer: A,C Explanation:

A: Configure one RMAN channel per tape drive and add tape drives to scale backup rates.

C: Configure the Preferred Network Interface (PNI) to direct the Oracle Secure Backup traffic over the InfiniBand network interface.

Example:

obgt; lspni (List Preferred Network Interface) mediaserver1:

PNI 1:

interface: mediaserver1-ib

clients: dbnode1, dbnode2, dbnode3, dbnode4, dbnode5, dbnode6, dbnode7, dbnode8

PNI 2:

interface: mediaserver1 clients: adminserver dbnode1:

PNI 1:

interface: dbnode1-ib clients: mediaserver1

Note:

  • Using the Sun ZFS Backup Appliance as an Oracle RMAN backup target for an Oracle Exadata system delivers much faster backup and recovery, enabling organizations to achieve shorter recovery time objectives and shrink backup windows. The appliance is designed for high sustained read and write I/O performance, and it is connected to the Oracle Exadata system via a high-throughput InfiniBand network fabric.

  • As the only unified storage vendor to support InfiniBand as a storage network for backup and restore operations, Oracle is leading the way with native high-bandwidth interconnects.

  • The InfiniBand network provides 40 Gb of bandwidth per port between the database servers, storage cells, and the Sun ZFS Backup Appliance. Backup and restore operations can be automatically parallelized across all database nodes, Oracle Exadata storage cells, Sun ZFS Backup Appliance channels, and controllers.

Question No: 10

You plan to migrate a database supporting an an OLTP workload to your Database Machine

This is part of a consolidation project and several other databases already exist on the Database Machine.

Which three Exadata features may help to improve the performance of this OLTP workload?

  1. Hybrid Columnar Compression

  2. I/O Resource Manager

  3. Smart Flash Cache

  4. Smart Flash Log

  5. Smart Scan

  6. Storage Index

Answer: B,C,D Explanation: C:

OLTP performance benefits with Exadata

/ (D) Smart flash log for low latency commits

/ (C) Smart flash cache for low latency reads. KEEP in Flash for critical objects

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